Prostate Cancer 

What is prostate cancer? 

 

Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate gland.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer among men in the UK.  Prostate cancer usually develops slowly, so there may be no signs for many years. 

Risk factors of prostate cancer  

 

Age – older men are more at risk.  Most cases are diagnosed in men over 50. 

Family history – having a direct relative (father or brother) who has had prostate cancer before the age of 60 puts you at a greater lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer.  Research also shows that having a close female relative who developed breast cancer may also increase your risk.  If you are concerned, PSA testing is available through your GP practice.   

 

Diet – research indicates that a diet high in calcium may increase your risk. 

 

Obesity – cancer is more common in overweight or obese people. 

 

Alcohol – drinking alcohol can increase your risk of getting prostate cancer. 

Ethnicity – it’s more common in black men. 1 in 4 black men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime. Black men are more likely to get prostate cancer than other men, who have a 1 in 8 chance of getting prostate cancer. 

You may also be more likely to get prostate cancer as a black man if: 

  • you are aged 45 or over – and your risk increases as you get older 

  • your father or brother has had it. 
     

More risks associated with prostate cancer. 

How can you reduce your risk of prostate cancer?  

 

PSA testing – instead of a national screening programme, there is an informed choice programme, called prostate risk management.  It’s for healthy men aged 50 or over who ask their GP about PSA testing.  If you’re aged 50 or over and decide to have your PSA levels tested after talking to a GP, they can arrange for it to be carried out free on the NHS. 

Healthy diet – eating a balanced diet can help reduce your risk of many types of cancer.  

Manage your weight – maintain a healthy weight  

Get more active – maintain regular physical exercise – exercise guidelines 

Manage your Alcohol consumption – keep an eye on how much alcohol you drink, stay within the recommended units  

Get more active – maintain regular physical exercise – exercise guidelines 

Manage your Alcohol consumption – keep an eye on how much alcohol you drink, stay within the recommended units  

Common symptoms of prostate cancer  

 

Prostate cancer usually develops slowly, so there may be no signs for many years. 

The 3 main symptom areas of prostate cancer are: 
 

  • Pee – Needing to pee more frequently, often during the night.  Difficulty starting to pee (hesitancy).  Straining or taking longer to pee (weak flow).   
     

  • Feeling that your bladder has not emptied fully. 
     

  • Blood in your urine or blood in your semen. 

Know the symptoms   

 

Finding prostate and testicular cancers earlier increases your chances of successful treatment. Dr Mark Metcalfe talks about the ABCD of prostate and testicular cancer symptoms and what key signs to look out for. If you notice any of these symptoms, please speak to your GP as soon as possible.  Find your nearest GP.

Testing for prostate cancer 

GP appointment – If you are concerned you have symptoms such a change in the way you pee or blood in your urine, make an appointment with your GP.  At the appointment your GP will ask about your symptoms.  They may also carry out an examination or test your PSA levels. 

Hospital referral – If your symptoms suggest you require further investigation, your GP can refer you to your local hospital for further tests.  Further test information. 

Who to contact for help or information​

GP Directory - locate your local GP

 

Local cancer support services - find support and information in our local cancer directory 

 

Cancer Care Map is a simple, online resource that aims to help you find cancer support services in your local area